So, what are the attributes of countries where gas has been expensive for a long time?
1. A few, densely populated cities harbor a relatively large percentage of the population.
2. People live in much smaller housing than the US on much smaller lots.
3. Taxes are high.
4. Mass transit is ubiquitous. It is multi modal.
5. Relatively wealthy people have a “flat” in the city and a vacation home somewhere else.
6. Local governments have substantial power and decision making authority.
7. The supply of affordable housing is created by taxing the relatively wealthy and subsidizing the less well to do – especially government employees such as teachers, policemen, etc.
8. Secondary cities often suffer from economic decay while primary cities prosper (example: Liverpool and London).